Risk prediction can also be used to establish whether low-dose aspirin is needed in adults aged 40–70 years. However, the 2019 guidelines do not stipulate a risk cut-off beyond which aspirin is routinely recommended for primary prevention of CVD. Rather, the risk of bleeding should also be considered, and aspirin should be avoided for primary prevention of CVD in adults aged >70 years. These recommendations are the result of trials in patients without CVD published in the past 2 years, which reported minimal or no benefit of prophylactic aspirin at the expense of increased risk of bleeding